Please use this page to share your recent exam questions and experiences. Comments You can follow this conversation by subscribing to the comment feed for this post. I atten exam on first time coming murch 24th so please say anything tips 24 February Hong Kong Academic module Listening A complain of an air fright company A gardening plant position map A future city environment tea import to different countries Children behavior experiment About Whale sorry, I just read the question Writing task 1 The bar chart show the percentage of consumed the amount of recommendation fruit and vegetable in UK provided 3 years information , and 3 types of people men, women and Children Writing task 2 Nowadays, some employers thought formal academic qualifications are important than life experiences and personal qualities when they look for employees. Why is this trend?
Posted on November 30, by Scott Alexander [epistemic status: My bias is against the current college system doing much good. I have tried not to be bogged down by this bias, but take it into account when reading my interpretations below. An earlier version of this post claimed that one paper had shown a u-shaped relationship between time spent in college and critical thinking.
A commenter pointed out this was true only of a subset in two-year colleges, but not of four-year colleges or college in general — which shows the expected linear relationship. I am sorry for the error, and correcting it somewhat increases my confidence in college building critical thinking.
The evidence sort of supports him, but with the usual caveats and uncertainties. First of all, what the heck is critical thinking? Luckily, we have a very objective scientific answer: Most studies on this issue are terrible because they lack control groups.
That is, they measure students when they enter college, measure them again when they leave college, and find that their critical thinking ability has improved.
But this could be for any number of reasons. Maybe older people generally have better critical thinking than younger people. Maybe life experience builds critical thinking.
Maybe college had nothing to do with any of it. The best meta-analysis of such studies, MacMillanfinds exactly this, and concludes: Overall these studies suggest that seniors, in the main, are probably better at critical thinking than freshmen.
However, since the most compelling data were gathered through weak pretest-posttest or longitudinal designs, it is difficult to separate out the effect of college from the maturational effects that occur despite college.
But in any case we need a better study design to conclude anything from this. There are two studies with moderately good designs, both by a guy named Pascarella. The first compares 30 college students to 17 matched non-college students and follows them up for one year.
The secondlarger study compares students doing college full-time to students doing college part-time, under the theory that if college is causing the effect, then a little college should cause a small effect, but lots of college should cause a big effect. They find this in the four-year college sample, and a garbled u-shaped mess in the two-year college sample.
At least the four-year sample, which is what most people are interested in, looks good.
On the other hand, some other studies find less impressive effect sizes. Arum and Roska recently wrote a book on this kind of thing, Academically Adriftand they find that two years of college start of freshman to end of sophomore only increases critical thinking by 0.
According to one review: College entrance to end of sophomore ie half of college improves critical thinking by 0. In contrast, during the s students developed their skills at twice the rate: Four years of college need not produce an effect twice as great as two years of college, any more than a space heater that increases the temperature of a room 10 degrees after being left on for one hour will increase the temperature degrees after being left on for a year.
Indeed, some studies suggest that most of the gains happen in freshman year. Studying a lot seems to help. So does reading unassigned books. Aside from that, the biggest finding is kind of concerning: Well, we know that people will gain critical thinking skills during the four years from age 18 to age We have an small study that finds college helps a little with this process and a larger study that shows dose-dependent effects of college.
We have some hard-to-compare effect sizes ranging from 0. But those of you who went to my talk last week hopefully know what my next question will be: We also know that as soon as children leave their parents, those effects go down to near zero.Essay Women, Men and Competition Loudly and often, women insist they don't like competition, and that competition is an act of aggression.
Ironically, however, competition as aggression is inevitable in a society where men must compete for the attention of women. Women encourage this. Gender and Competition Muriel Niederle1,2 and Lise Vesterlund2,3 1Department of Economics, Stanford University, Stanford, Under the piece rate, men and women solved on average and problems, respectively, and under the tournament they solved and problems.
The gender. This article was originally published on Roosh V.. A lot of you are coming to the realization, like myself, that there are not many options for men who want to pursue something deeper besides stacking cash and sleeping with promiscuous women, even if you made all the right moves with your life through focusing on self improvement and .
Well, for a beginning author, it will probably be easiest to work with an origin story that is familiar to your readers. For example, Peter Parker, Static Shock and Harry Potter are pretty much in high school at the start of their stories.
University of Birmingham. Teaching excellence; Alumni; Work here; Events; Visit; UK Dubai. Women seem to have a reputation for being “catty” and competitive with other women, unlike how men behave with other men. This is a curious notion, especially since women are actually less.