Share Did you know that there have been several recessions in the U. A recession historically has been defined as two consecutive quarters of decline in GDP, the combined value of all the goods and services produced in the U.
Some economists prefer a definition of a 1. The NBER defines an economic recession as: In the United Kingdomrecessions are generally defined as two consecutive quarters of negative economic growth, as measured by the seasonal adjusted quarter-on-quarter figures for real GDP  with the same definition being used for all other member states of the European Union.
These summary measures reflect underlying drivers such as employment levels and skills, household savings rates, corporate investment decisions, interest rates, demographics, and government policies.
Koo wrote that under ideal conditions, a country's economy should have the household sector as net savers and the corporate sector as net borrowers, with the government budget nearly balanced and net exports near zero. Policy responses are often designed to drive the economy back towards this ideal state of balance.
Type of recession or shape[ edit ] Main article: Recession shapes The type and shape of recessions are distinctive. In the US, v-shaped, or short-and-sharp contractions followed by rapid and sustained recovery, occurred in and —91; U-shaped prolonged slump in —75, and W-shaped, or double-dip recessions in and — For example, if companies expect economic activity to slow, they may reduce employment levels and save money rather than invest.
Such expectations can create a self-reinforcing downward cycle, bringing about or worsening a recession. Shiller wrote that the term " When animal spirits are on ebb, consumers do not want to spend and businesses do not want to make capital expenditures or hire people.
Balance sheet recession High levels of indebtedness or the bursting of a real estate or financial asset price bubble can cause what is called a "balance sheet recession. The term balance sheet derives from an accounting identity that holds that assets must always equal the sum of liabilities plus equity.
If asset prices fall below the value of the debt incurred to purchase them, then the equity must be negative, meaning the consumer or corporation is insolvent.
Economist Paul Krugman wrote in that "the best working hypothesis seems to be that the financial crisis was only one manifestation of a broader problem of excessive debt--that it was a so-called "balance sheet recession. Despite zero interest rates and expansion of the money supply to encourage borrowing, Japanese corporations in aggregate opted to pay down their debts from their own business earnings rather than borrow to invest as firms typically do.
Japanese firms overall became net savers afteras opposed to borrowers. Koo argues that it was massive fiscal stimulus borrowing and spending by the government that offset this decline and enabled Japan to maintain its level of GDP. In his view, this avoided a U.
He argued that monetary policy was ineffective because there was limited demand for funds while firms paid down their liabilities. In a balance sheet recession, GDP declines by the amount of debt repayment and un-borrowed individual savings, leaving government stimulus spending as the primary remedy.
However, Krugman argued that monetary policy could also affect savings behavior, as inflation or credible promises of future inflation generating negative real interest rates would encourage less savings. In other words, people would tend to spend more rather than save if they believe inflation is on the horizon.
In more technical terms, Krugman argues that the private sector savings curve is elastic even during a balance sheet recession responsive to changes in real interest rates disagreeing with Koo's view that it is inelastic non-responsive to changes in real interest rates.
Both durable and non-durable goods consumption declined as households moved from low to high leverage with the decline in property values experienced during the subprime mortgage crisis. Further, reduced consumption due to higher household leverage can account for a significant decline in employment levels.
Policies that help reduce mortgage debt or household leverage could therefore have stimulative effects. In theory, near-zero interest rates should encourage firms and consumers to borrow and spend.
However, if too many individuals or corporations focus on saving or paying down debt rather than spending, lower interest rates have less effect on investment and consumption behavior; the lower interest rates are like " pushing on a string.
One remedy to a liquidity trap is expanding the money supply via quantitative easing or other techniques in which money is effectively printed to purchase assets, thereby creating inflationary expectations that cause savers to begin spending again.
Government stimulus spending and mercantilist policies to stimulate exports and reduce imports are other techniques to stimulate demand. Too many consumers attempting to save or pay down debt simultaneously is called the paradox of thrift and can cause or deepen a recession.
Economist Hyman Minsky also described a "paradox of deleveraging" as financial institutions that have too much leverage debt relative to equity cannot all de-leverage simultaneously without significant declines in the value of their assets. The recession, in turn, deepened the credit crunch as demand and employment fell, and credit losses of financial institutions surged.
Indeed, we have been in the grips of precisely this adverse feedback loop for more than a year.The author of this essay is a consumer of high street fashion apparel and expresses a personal interest into the findings of the research.
The author hopes to obtain an advanced understanding of consumer buying behaviour in the current economical climate and compare it with their own spending habits.
Has the Recent Recession Caused High Street Consumers to Change Their Buying Habits? Words Nov 1st, 14 Pages The author of this essay is a consumer of high street fashion apparel and expresses a personal interest into the . Financial Advisor Magazine created exclusively for advisors by highly experienced editorial and publishing teams.
We provide an interactive community for the Financial Advisor, Investment Advisor. The aim of this research project is to understand the extent the high street has been affected by changes in consumer behaviour, caused by the recession.
A recession implies a fall in real GDP. An official definition of a recession is a period of negative economic growth for two consecutive quarters. Recessions are primarily caused by a fall in aggregate demand (AD). This demand-side shock could be due to several factors, such as Higher oil prices.
Irrational exuberance in high tech caused the recession. In , there was an economic boom in computer and software sales caused by the Y2K scare. Many companies and individuals bought new computer systems to .